Planting Date and Preplant Tillage Effects on Emergence and Survival of Rhizoma Perennial Peanut
- M. J. Williams *
Poor stand establishment has limited use of rhizoma perennial peanut, Arachis glabrata Benth. The effect of preplant tillage (plowedbottom plowed and disked, disked-disked only, and sod-planted directly into grass sod) and planting date (winter, 17 Feb. 1988 and Jan. 1989; summer, 22 July 1988 and 21 July 1989) on rhizoma peanut sprout emergence and survival was determined in a Florida study. Total number of sprouts per square meter, time to first and last sprout emergence, time to first and last sprout death, percent of sprouts that died, and number of live sprouts per square meter were evaluated for 2 yr. Additionally, spread of rhizoma peanut from original rows was determined for all plots 8 mo after the second summer planting. Time to first sprout emergence ranged from 2 to 5 wk post planting with winter plantings (5.1 wk) emerging slower (P = 0.0001) than summer (3.1 wk). Time to first sprout emergence was shorter (P = 0.0003) for plowed (3.7 wk) than disked (4.4 wk) or sod (4.3 wk) treatments. Sprouting had declined to essentially zero by 6 to 7 wk after firstsprout emergence, regardless of preplant tillage, planting date, or year. General ranking for total emergence was plowed > disked = sod (P = 0.0001) and winter > summer (P = 0.04). Death losses emerged sprouts ranged between 21.4 and 93.3% and were not affected (P > 0.05) by preplant tillage. Summer plantings (43.1%) lower (P = 0.007) death losses than winter plantings (58.8%), this better survival did not compensate for lower number of sprouts emerging in summer plantings. Differences in initial sprout population were reflected in spread differences (P = 0.002) even as long as 2 post planting. This study indicates that the recommendation for establishing rhizoma peanut stands in well-prepared fields during the winter should be continued.
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